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Infertility is the inability of a mature organism to produce offspring. A marriage is called sterile when pregnancy does not occur after three years of the spouses' life without the use of contraception.

Infertility can be the result of pathological processes in the body of both men (about 30%) and women (about 70%). A man may be incapable of fertilization even if the ability to intercourse is preserved.

The causes of male infertility can be malformations of the genital organ (hypospadias and epispadias), aspermatism, azoospermia, testicular tumors, chronic poisoning; the abuse of alcohol and nicotine has an extremely negative effect on the male reproductive apparatus. In women, infertility is distinguished between primary (when a woman has not had a single pregnancy) and secondary (occurred after a previous birth or abortion).

Infertility can be absolute when, for various reasons, pregnancy is generally impossible (the absence of the uterus or its significant underdevelopment, the absence of ovaries, malformations of the genitals, etc.), and relative, when due to some reasons, pregnancy is impossible, but it may occur after eliminating these causes.

The causes of female infertility are varied. The most common form is tubal infertility, caused by the closure of the lumen in the fallopian tubes, which prevents the male reproductive cell (sperm) from meeting with the female (egg) and, consequently, fertilization. Tubal infertility can occur as a result of previous gonorrhea, septic infection (after abortion), genital tuberculosis, etc.

An indispensable condition for conception is the maturation and release of the egg from the ovary (ovulation). This process can be disrupted by pathological changes in the female body; various changes in the central nervous system (hypothalamus) and in the endocrine glands (pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid gland).

In this case, menstruation may stop or be delayed (amenorrhea), or various violations may occur. Sometimes infertility depends on diseases of the uterus and its cervix.

Treatment. In case of female infertility resulting from the transferred inflammatory processes, physiotherapy and spa treatment are carried out, in case of endocrine disorders - hormone therapy. Surgical methods for eliminating tubal infertility are being developed. Treatment of male infertility - elimination of the cause; restorative treatment, abstinence from the use of nicotine and alcohol.

Infertility myths

Painful periods are the cause of infertility. Painful periods do not affect fertility in any way. Moreover, regular painful periods often indicate that the cycle was ovulatory (ovulation occurred in this cycle). However, increased pain during menstruation and pain during sex may indicate a gynecological problem (endometriosis, fibroma ...).

Infrequent periods are the cause of infertility. An extended but regular menstrual cycle is absolutely not indicative of fertility problems. For some women, the menstrual cycle can last 40 days. Naturally, since in aggregate these women have fewer cycles per year, then the number of fertile periods they have is less. Women with an extended menstrual cycle need to monitor the onset of ovulation more closely (because it occurs later in comparison with women who have a cycle of 28-30 days).

The incompatibility of the blood groups of the husband and wife is the cause of infertility. There is no connection between blood types and fertility.

The reason I can't get pregnant is because after intercourse, sperm flows out of me. Leakage of semen after intercourse is normal. If the husband ejaculated in the vagina, then be sure that the required amount of sperm has managed to mix with the cervical mucus, and the amount of sperm flowed out does not matter.

Male fertility is determined by the consistency and volume of semen. Sperm is made up of semen, which is secreted by the prostate. The volume and consistency of semen is not related to fertility in any way, as fertility depends to a large extent on the number of sperm. And this can only be verified by microscopic examination.

Infertility is hereditary. If your mother, grandmother or sister had problems with pregnancy, this does not mean at all that you have the same problem.

To get pregnant, you need to have sex every day. Sperm remain active in a woman's cervical fluid for 48-72 hours after intercourse. Therefore, it is not at all necessary to strictly adhere to such a frequent love-making schedule. Of course, it is important to have intercourse during ovulation, but if you miss one (even the day of ovulation itself), this is not critical.

In a woman, the egg matures every month alternately: one month in the left ovary, the next month in the right. Indeed, every month ovulation occurs only in one ovary, but it does not necessarily happen in such a sequence, the egg can mature several cycles in a row in one, for example, the left ovary.

If you want to get pregnant, then just relax, do not think about it and the desired pregnancy will come. If pregnancy does not occur after a year, then most likely there is some kind of medical problem. There is no evidence that stress is the cause of infertility. Remember that all people with infertility are under stress - but it is not stress that causes infertility, but infertility causes stress.

I have never had any symptoms of inflammation, which means that my fallopian tubes are patent. Many infections may not manifest themselves in any way and not have external symptoms, but at the same time they can cause irreparable harm, for example, pipes.

My gynecologist carried out an examination and said that everything was fine with me, therefore, I should not have problems with pregnancy. Routine examination by a gynecologist does not provide complete information about possible problems affecting fertility.

If a woman takes hormonal drugs (for the treatment of infertility), then she will certainly have a multiple pregnancy. Although hormonal drugs increase the chances of getting multiple pregnancies (because they make the ovaries work harder and produce more eggs), most women who take these drugs become pregnant with one fetus.

The sperm count in men does not change from examination to examination. Sperm count can vary greatly from test to test. The number and mobility of sperm can depend on the time elapsed between ejaculations, illness or medication.

Azoospermia (lack of sperm) is the result of active masturbation during childhood. Masturbation is normal for boys and men. It does not affect sperm count. Sperm cannot be exhausted, as it is constantly reproduced in the ovaries.

Infertility is a female problem. Not true. The ratio of male and female factors of infertility is the same. Combined and unexplained infertility also occurs.

Everyone around is getting pregnant except me. It was found that every 5th, 6th person has fertility problems. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 4.5 million couples face fertility problems every year. Less than 2 million seek help from a medical facility. Fortunately, in 90% of cases of infertility, the cause can be determined by reproductive medicine specialists.

Once you adopt a child, you get pregnant. Almost every infertile couple has heard similar stories from acquaintances or friends. However, studies show that the chances of pregnancy do not change after adoption.

Maybe I'm doing something wrong in my sex life, and that's why I'm not doing anything. Infertility is a medical problem, not a sexual one.

Infertility occurs only in couples who have never had children before. Unfortunately, many couples who already have a child face the problem of secondary infertility.

Watch the video: Urology Infertility: By Alexander Pastuszak. (August 2022).