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Smoking, a type of household drug addiction, the most common form of which is nicotinism - tobacco smoking; it also finds therapeutic use - a form of taking certain medications, for example, for bronchial asthma. Tobacco was brought by H. Columbus to Spain and Portugal from America at the end of the 15th century; at first it was used as an ornamental plant and only later - for smoking.
In the 16th century, tobacco became widespread in France, after it was presented to the queen as a remedy by the ambassador to Portugal, J. Nico (hence "nicotine"). Tobacco leaves were not only used for smoking; dried and crushed, they turned into snuff.
When tobacco is smoked, attraction to it quickly develops, which is facilitated by the transformation of the very act of smoking into a kind of ritual. The harmful effect on the body of products formed during smoking due to dry sublimation of tobacco has been established. Inhalation of tobacco smoke damages the tooth enamel, which can lead to caries; stomatitis and gingivitis often occur.
Under the influence of the chronic effect of nicotine on the autonomic nervous system, general autonomic disorders occur, gastric secretion increases, the acidity of gastric juice sharply increases, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease develop, a tendency to constipation or diarrhea appears, salivation increases (as a result of which tartar deposits occur). Trophic changes in the walls of blood vessels are associated with the vasoconstrictor effect of nicotine, which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and systemic vascular diseases.
A special type of "disease of smokers" is intermittent claudication associated with endarteritis obliterating the arteries of the leg and foot. Constant irritation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi and bronchioles causes their chronic diseases, and sometimes leads to bronchial asthma. Tobacco smoke, in addition to nicotine bases, contains other harmful substances.
It has been proven that the possibility of getting lung cancer in smokers of more than two packs of cigarettes per day is 20 times greater than in non-smokers. The relationship between tobacco smoking and the occurrence of cancer not only of the lungs, but also of the lips, oral cavity, trachea, has been established. The percentage of patients with tuberculosis among smokers is almost twice as high as among nonsmokers. 95% of tuberculosis illnesses that begin in adulthood fall on smokers.
Like any drug, tobacco causes a short-term euphoria when smoking. Short-term arousal of mental activity when smoking depends not only on nicotine, but also on the reflex effect on cerebral circulation of irritation of the sensitive nerves of the oral cavity and respiratory tract with tobacco smoke. The latter adversely affects the health of not only smokers themselves, but also those around them.
Smoking during pregnancy is especially harmful - nicotine, penetrating into the mother's blood, poisons the fetus. Acute nicotine poisoning (nausea, vomiting, rapid heart rate, convulsions, high blood pressure) is usually observed during the first attempts to smoke. In the treatment of nicotinism, psychotherapy and psychoprophylaxis, as well as some medications (tabex, lobesil, etc.), are of decisive importance.
Everyone smokes. This is not true. Most of humanity does not smoke. In economically developed countries, the fashion for smoking is gradually disappearing. Now a civilized society cultivates a sports style, a sports figure, regular exercise, daily gymnastics. Smoking can interfere with your career. More and more entrepreneurs refuse to hire smokers. In the US, 35 million have quit smoking, in England - more than 8 million. In our country, whole groups of young people - from "pop stars" to "greens", quit smoking and cultivate a healthy lifestyle.
Smoking is harmless. Smoking is the main risk factor for diseases of the lungs, heart, and nervous system. 9 out of 10 lung cancer patients smoked. If a person starts smoking at the age of 15, his life expectancy is reduced by more than 8 years. Those who started smoking before age 15 are 5 times more likely to die from cancer than those who started smoking after age 25. Scientists have found that each cigarette shortens life by 12 minutes.
The most harmful thing in a cigarette is nicotine. Every child knows that a drop of nicotine kills a horse and causes cancer. But, smoking a cigarette, you swallow from 0.1 to 1.8 milligrams of nicotine and, according to the "horse" scheme, you would have to go to the cemetery after the first pack. In fact, nicotine is not a carcinogen. It is primarily a drug that is addictive and makes you smoke. And now, together with the smoke, really dangerous substances that are contained in cigarette tar enter your body. Their ingredients, with smoke and blood entering any of the organs (from the mouth to the bladder), initiate the development of tumors.
Cigars and pipes are safer to smoke because they do not get caught. It is true that these smoking accessories rarely cause lung cancer because their smoke is not normally inhaled. However, it is cigar and pipe smoking that contributes to cancer of the larynx and lip. By the way, cigars are leaders in tar content.
Smoking is only dangerous for those who smoke. Doctors have long established that passive smokers fall prey to tobacco. Being in a smoking company, a person risks not only getting used to tobacco smoke (from which one step to a cigarette), but also getting the whole "bouquet" of diseases associated with smoking.
Just a few cigarettes a day can't hurt. Although the risk of lung cancer has a linear dose / response relationship with tobacco use, the risk of cardiovascular disease, which accounts for a significant proportion of tobacco-related illness and death, becomes apparent with only 3-5 cigarettes per day. The relationship between the risk of acute myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease and exposure to tobacco smoke appears to be non-linear at low doses and increases rapidly with relatively small dose increases, such as from ambient tobacco smoke or smoking only a few cigarettes per day. Even mild exposure to tobacco smoke increases platelet adhesion and causes changes in arterial wall conditions and hemodynamics. Pregnant women who smoke only 5 cigarettes a day are more likely to have babies with reduced birth weight. Cancer is the leading cause of death among smokers, with lung cancer accounting for nearly 80% of tobacco-related cancer deaths. However, cardiovascular disease (all forms combined) is the leading cause of all tobacco-related deaths, including both smokers and those exposed to tobacco smoke. Cardiovascular disease is second only to respiratory disease (ie, chronic bronchitis and emphysema) in tobacco-related morbidity. Cardiovascular disease appears to be caused by exposure to carbon monoxide and other combustion products, which suggests that any "low risk" tobacco product that burns and is inhaled is unlikely to significantly reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. cardiovascular causes.
Smoking calms the nerves and relieves stress. In fact, the components of tobacco (tar, nicotine, smoke, etc.) do not relax, but simply "inhibit" the most important parts of the central nervous system. But, having got used to a cigarette, a person can no longer relax without it. It turns out to be a vicious circle: both the onset and the end of stress become dependent on smoking.
People who smoke keep their slim figure longer. Firstly, there are a lot of smoking fat men around. Secondly, by dulling the feeling of hunger with a cigarette, you provoke the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Thirdly, losing weight through smoking is the same as inoculating yourself with an infectious disease and "melting before our eyes" from it.
Light cigarettes are not as harmful as regular cigarettes. Alas, this is not the case. Constantly using light cigarettes, smokers inhale more often and deeper, which later can lead to cancer not of the lungs themselves, but of the so-called pulmonary "periphery" - alveoli and small bronchi.
Smoking promotes concentration. No matter how it is! Stimulation of the nervous system with nicotine depletes the energy capacity of the brain. Tobacco becomes a kind of stimulant: when performing complex mental work, a person begins to smoke one cigarette after another, only in order not to lose this same concentration of attention.
Quitting smoking is easy. Most smokers have tried to quit smoking at least once in their lives, and they have not succeeded. According to the World Health Organization, only every 100 experienced smokers succeeds on the first try.
It is impossible to quit smoking by gradually reducing the dose of nicotine. Difficult, but possible. Nevertheless, instead of smoking not 10, but 5 cigarettes a day, it is better to undergo nicotine replacement therapy. It lies in the fact that in the first time after quitting smoking, a certain dose of nicotine is introduced into the body, reducing the severity of the withdrawal syndrome. Nicotine-containing chewing gums, patches, lozenges and aerosols are available.
Smoking cessation medications do not work. Smoking cessation medications, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT - patches, chewing gum, aerosol and tablets), and bupropion, can double the likelihood of successful smoking cessation. For some smokers, combinations of these drugs, such as multiple types of NRT, NRT with bupropion, NRT with counseling, and NRT with bupropion and counseling, may be even more effective than using a single smoking cessation method. Retreatment after an initial failure of smoking cessation also increases success rates, and drug combinations are particularly beneficial for quit and quit smokers.